The Kamsutra is one of the worlds most popular books on the art of lovemaking and sexuality. You can download the pdf of Kamsutra in Hindi below. It is a 2. 8 MB. Evil, in a large sense, may be described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to exist in the universe, to the desires and needs of individuals. Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kwanzaa. Kwanzaa celebration with its founder, Maulana Karenga, and others. Observed by. African Americans. Type. Cultural and ethnic. Significance. Celebrates Black heritage, unity and culture. Date. December 2. January 1. Celebrations. Unity. Self Determination. Collective Work and Responsibility. Cooperative Economics. Purpose. Creativity. Faith. Related to. Black History Month. Kwanzaa is a week long celebration held in the United States to honor universal African heritage and culture. People light a kinara candle holder with seven candles1 and give each other gifts. It takes place from December 2. January 1 every year. It was created by Maulana Karenga and was first celebrated in 1. Non African Americans also celebrate Kwanzaa. The holiday greeting is Joyous Kwanzaa. Kwanzaa is a celebration that started in the black nationalist movement of the 1. It was created as a way to help African Americans reconnect with their African cultural and historical heritage. The name Kwanzaa comes from the Swahili phrase matunda ya kwanza, meaning first fruits of the harvest. During the early years of Kwanzaa, Karenga said that it was meant to be an alternative to Christmas, that Jesus was psychotic, and that Christianity was a white religion that black people should shun. However, as Kwanzaa became more popular, Karenga changed his position so that practicing Christians could also feel included. He stated in the 1. Kwanzaa A Celebration of Family, Community, and Culture, Kwanzaa was not created to give people an alternative to their own religion or religious holiday. Many Christian African Americans who celebrate Kwanzaa do so in addition to observing Christmas. Seven candles in a candle holder are symbols of the seven ideas of Kwanzaa. Kwanzaa celebrates what its founder called the seven principles of Kwanzaa, or Nguzo Saba originally Nguzu Sabathe seven principles of blackness. Karenga said that this is a communitarian African philosophy,. It consists of what Karenga called the best of African thought and practice in constant exchange with the world. These seven principles comprise Kawaida, a Swahili term for tradition and reason. Each of the seven days of Kwanzaa is dedicated to one of the following principles, as follows Umoja Unity To strive for and to maintain unity in the family, community, nation, and race. Kujichagulia Self Determination To define ourselves, name ourselves, create for ourselves, and speak for ourselves. Ujima Collective Work and Responsibility To build and maintain our community together. To make our brothers and sisters problems our problems, and to solve them together. Ujamaa Cooperative Economics To build and maintain our own stores, shops, and other businesses and to profit from them together. Nia Purpose To make our collective goal the building and developing of our community. This in order to restore our people to their traditional greatness. Kuumba Creativity To do always as much as we can, in the way we can. This so that we can leave our community more beautiful and better than we inherited it. Imani Faith To believe with all our heart in our people, our parents, our teachers, our leaders, and the righteousness and victory of our struggle. A woman lights candles on a table with things for Kwanzaa. Kwanzaa symbols include a decorative mat on which other symbols are placed, corn and other crops, a candle holder with seven candles, called a kinara, a communal cup for pouring libations, gifts, a poster of the seven principles, and a black, red, and green flag. The symbols were designed to convey the seven principles. During Kwanzaa, families also decorate their households with objects of art. They use colorful African cloth such as kente, especially the wearing of kaftans by women. Fresh fruits that represent African idealism are also used. It is normal to include children in Kwanzaa ceremonies and to give respect and gratitude to ancestors. Libations are shared, generally with a common chalice a shared cup, Kikombe cha Umoja, passed around to all people present. A Kwanzaa ceremony may include drumming and musical selections, libations, a reading of the African Pledge and the Principles of Blackness, reflection on the Pan African colors, a discussion of the African principle of the day or a chapter in African history, a candle lighting ritual, artistic performance, and, finally, a feast Karamu. The greeting for each day of Kwanzaa is Habari Gani1. Swahili for Whats the News1. Cultural exhibitions include the Spirit of Kwanzaa, an annual celebration held at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts featuring interpretive dance, African dance, song and poetry. A program to raise the faith level in African American children through Scripture, Kwanzaa principles, and culture, Janette Elizabeth Chandler Kotey, DMin, Oral Roberts University,1. The US Organization African American cultural nationalism in the era of Black Power, 1. Scot D. Brown, Ph. D, Cornell University, 1. Rituals of race, ceremonies of culture Kwanzaa and the making of a Black Power holiday in the United States,1. Keith Alexander Mayes, Ph. D, Princeton University, 2. Interview Kwanzaa creator Ron Karenga discusses the evolution of the holiday and its meaning in 2. Tony Cox. Tavis Smiley NPR, 2. 3Ivx Mpeg-4 Codec. December 2. 00. 3Tolerance in the News Kwanzaa A threat to Christmas By Camille Jackson Staff Writer, Tolerance. December 2. 00. 5Why Kwanzaa Video. Ron Karenga. Keith Mayes, cited by Megan K. Scott, Kwanzaa celebrations continue, but boom is over, Buffalo News, 1. December 2. 00. 9. Accessed 2. 5 December 2. Bush, George W. 2. Presidential Kwanzaa Message, 2. Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved 2. 00. 7 1. Clinton offers holiday messages. CNN. 1. 99. 7 1. Retrieved 2. Gale, Elaine 1. 99. Appeal of Kwanzaa continues to grow holidays today marks start of the seven day celebration of African culture, which began in Watts 3. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2. 00. 7 1. Megan K. Scott, Kwanzaa celebrations continue, but boom is over, Buffalo News, 1. December 2. 00. 9. Accessed 2. 5 December 2. Karenga, Maulana 1. Religion. In Clyde Halisi, James Mtume. The quotable Karenga. Los Angeles University of Sankore Press. J. Lawrence Scholer, The story of Kwanzaa, Dartmouth Review, 1. January 2. 00. 1. Williams, Lena 1. In Blacks Homes, the Christmas and Kwanzaa Spirits Meet. The New York Times. Retrieved 2. 01. 0 0. The Symbols of Kwanzaa. How To Wii Games And Burn To Disc. Retrieved 2. 01. 0 1. Kwanzaa GreetingA Model Kwanzaa CeremonyThe Spirit of KwanzaaThe Dance Institute of Washington.
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